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Data Embedding in JPEG Bitstream by Code Mapping


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Abstract


We propose an algorithm to embed data directly in the bitstream of JPEG imagery. The motivation for this approach is that images are seldom available in uncompressed form. Algorithms that operate in spatial domain, or even in coefficient domain, require full (or at best) partial decompression. Our approach exploits the fact that only a fraction of JPEG code space is actually used by available encoders. Data embedding is performed by mapping a used variable length code (VLC) to an unused VLC. However, standard viewers unaware of the change will not properly display the image.We address this problem by a novel error concealment technique. Concealment works by remapping run/size values of marked VLCs so that standard viewers do not lose synchronization and displays the image with minimum loss of quality. It is possible for the embedded image to be visually identical to the original even though the two files are bitwise different. The algorithm is fast and transparent and embedding is reversible and file-size preserving. Under certain circumstances, file size may actually decrease despite carrying a payload. We propose an algorithm to embed data directly in the bitstream of JPEG imagery. The motivation for this approach is that images are seldom available in uncompressed form. Algorithms that operate in spatial domain, or even in coefficient domain, require full (or at best) partial decompression. Our approach exploits the fact that only a fraction of JPEG code space is actually used by available encoders. Data embedding is performed by mapping a used variable length code (VLC) to an unused VLC. However, standard viewers unaware of the change will not properly display the image.We address this problem by a novel error concealment technique. Concealment works by remapping run/size values of marked VLCs so that standard viewers do not lose synchronization and displays the image with minimum loss of quality. It is possible for the embedded image to be visually identical to the original even though the two files are bitwise different. The algorithm is fast and transparent and embedding is reversible and file-size preserving. Under certain circumstances, file size may actually decrease despite carrying a payload.

KeyWords
Code,mapping,embedding,JPEG,VLC,watermarking.



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