Time Optimal Maneuver Planning in Automatic Parallel Parking Using a Simultaneous Dynamic Optimization Approach
Autonomous parking has been a widely developed branch of intelligent transportation systems. In autonomous parking, maneuver planning is a crucial procedure that determines how intelligent the entire parking system is. This paper concerns planning time-optimal parallel parking maneuvers in a straightforward, accurate, and purely objective way. A unified dynamic optimization framework is established, which includes the vehicle kinematics, physical restrictions, collision-avoidance constraints, and an optimization objective. Interior-point method (IPM)-based simultaneous dynamic optimization methodology is adopted to solve the formulated dynamic optimization problem numerically. Given that near-feasible solutions have been widely acknowledged to ease optimizing nonlinear programs (NLPs), a critical region-based initialization strategy is proposed to facilitate the offline NLP-solving process, a lookup table-based strategy is proposed to guarantee the on-site planning performance, and a receding-horizon optimization framework is proposed for online maneuver planning. A series of parallel parking cases is tested, and simulation results demonstrate that our proposal is efficient even when the slot length is merely 10.19Per larger than the car length. As a unified maneuver planner, our adopted IPM-based simultaneous dynamic optimization method can deal with any user-specified demand provided that it can be explicitly described.