Lithium-Sulfur Cell Equivalent Circuit Network Model Parameterization and Sensitivity Analysis
Compared to lithium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries potentially offer greater specific energy density, a wider temperature range of operation, and safety benefits, making them a promising technology for energy storage systems especially in automotive and aerospace applications. Unlike lithium-ion batteries, there is not a mature discipline of equivalent circuit network (ECN) modelling for Li-S. In this study, ECN modelling is addressed using formal â??system identificationâ?? techniques. A Li-S cellâ??s performance is studied in the presence of different charge/discharge rates and temperature levels using precise experimental test equipment. Various ECN model structures are explored, considering the trade-offs between accuracy and speed. It was concluded that a â??2RCâ?? model is generally a good compromise, giving good accuracy and speed. Model parameterization is repeated at various state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature levels, and the effects of these variables on Li-S cellâ??s ohmic resistance and total capacity are demonstrated. The results demonstrate that Li-S cellâ??s ohmic resistance has a highly nonlinear relationship with SOC with a break-point around 75Percent SOC that distinguishes it from other types of battery. Finally, an ECN model is proposed which uses SOC and temperature as inputs. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the effect of SOC estimation error on the modelâ??s accuracy. In this analysis, the battery modelâ??s accuracy is evaluated at various SOC and temperature levels. The results demonstrate that the Li-S cell model has the most sensitivity to SOC estimation error around the break-point (around 75Percent SOC) whereas in the middle SOC range, from 20Percent to 70Percent, it has the least sensitivity.
lithium-sulfur cell, battery modelling, identification, state-of-charge estimation, sensitivity analysis.