DC Microgrid Technology:System Architectures, AC Grid Interfaces, Grounding Schemes, Power Quality, Communication Networks, Applications and Standardizations Aspects
To meet the fast growing energy demand and, at the same time, to tackle environmental issues resulting from conventional energy sources, renewable energy sources are utilized in power networks to ensure reliable and affordable energy for the public and the industrial sectors. Integration of renewable energy in the outdated electrical grid can result in new risks/challenges such as security of the supply infrastructure, base load energy capacity, seasonal effects and so on. Recent research and development in microgrids has proven that microgrids which are fueled by renewable energy sources and managed by smart grid (use of smart sensors and smart energy management system) can offer higher reliability and more efficient energy systems in a cost-effective manner. Further improvement in reliability and efficiency of electrical grids can be achieved by utilizing DC distribution in microgrid systems. DC microgrid becomes an attractive technology in modern electrical grid system due to natural interface with renewable energy sources, electric loads and energy storage systems. In the recent past, an increase in research work has been observed in DC microgrid to bring this technology closer to practical implementation. This paper presents state-of-the-art DC microgrid technology covering AC interfaces, architectures, possible grounding schemes, power quality issues and communication systems. The advantages of DC grid can be utilized in many applications to improve their reliability and efficiency. This paper also discusses benefits and challenges of using DC grid system in several applications. The paper highlights the urgent need of standardizations for DC microgrid technology and present recent updates in this area.
DC microgrid, Architectures, Power Quality, Grounding, Communication Network, Smart grid and Standardization.