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Comparison of the Device Lifetime in Wireless Networks for the Internet of Things


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Abstract


This paper presents a comparison of the expected lifetime for Internet of Things (IoT) devices operating in several wireless networks: the IEEE 802.15.4/e, Bluetooth low energy (BLE), the IEEE 802.11 power saving mode, the IEEE 802.11ah, and in new emerging long-range technologies, such as LoRa and SIGFOX. To compare all technologies on an equal basis, we have developed an analyzer that computes the energy consumption for a given protocol based on the power required in a given state (Sleep, Idle, Tx, and Rx) and the duration of each state.We consider the case of an energy constrained node that uploads data to a sink, analyzing the physical (PHY) layer under medium access control (MAC) constraints, and assuming IPv6 trafc whenever possible. This paper considers the energy spent in retransmissions due to corrupted frames and collisions as well as the impact of imperfect clocks. The comparison shows that the BLE offers the best lifetime for all trafc intensities in its capacity range. LoRa achieves long lifetimes behind 802.15.4 and BLE for ultra low trafc intensity; SIGFOX only matches LoRa for very small data sizes. Moreover, considering the energy consumption due to retransmissions of lost data packets only decreases the lifetimes without changing their relative ranking. We believe that these comparisons will give all users of IoT technologies indications about the technology that best ts their needs from the energy consumption point of view. Our analyzer will also help IoT network designers to select the right MAC parameters to optimize the energy consumption for a given application.

KeyWords
Internet of Things, wireless sensor networks, 6LoWPAN, 802.15.4e, TSCH,802.11ah, Bluetooth low energy, LoRa,SIGFOX, energy consumption model, clock drift.



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