Model-Based Simulation for Hybrid Fuel Cell/Battery/Ultracapacitor Electric Vehicle
Electric vehicle becomes a more attractive alternative for transportation. An additional energy source is required due to the limited travel range for pure electric vehicle which can be reached by battery only. Energy management strategy in electric vehicle, especially in a vehicle with more than one power source, is very crucial in saving energy. Battery state of charge (SOC) operation range influences the vehicle efficiency. This paper presents simulation for energy management in a fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor electric vehicle. Electric motor with regenerative braking is used for the vehicle traction. A 7 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell system is used as main power sources during cruising. Lithium polymer battery module (40 Ah/cell) plays as energy storage which able to provide the energy required for the vehicle traction as well as to store energy during regenerative braking. Ultracapacitor module (350F/cell) is provided as booster power during fast acceleration and high power demand. A city car design was chosen as the vehicle type model. Simulation was conducted on LabVIEW® platform based on the mathematical model of each vehicle components, using Surakarta driving cycle. The simulation has been done to analyze the vehicle efficiency, hydrogen utilization, oxidant utilization, and parasitic power during vehicle traveling.
electric vehicle, hybrid, fuel cell, battery, ultracapacitor I