Online Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Transfer Convolutional Neural Networks
Fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) is crucial for stable, reliable, and safe operation of industrial equipment. In recent years, deep learning models have been widely used in data-driven FDD methods because of their automatic feature learning capability. In general, these models are trained on historical sensor data, and therefore, it is very difficult to meet the real-time requirement of online FDD applications. Since transfer learning can solve different but similar problems in the target domain efficiently and effectively with the knowledge learned from the source domain, this paper proposes an online fault diagnosis method based on a deep transfer convolutional neural network (TCNN) framework. The TCNN framework is made up of an online CNN based on LeNet-5 and several offline CNNs with a shallow structure. First, time-domain signal data are converted into images that contain abundant fault information and are suitable as the input of CNN. Then, the online CNN is constructed to automatically extract representative features from the converted images and classify faults. Finally, in order to improve the real-time performance of the online CNN, several offline CNNs are also constructed and pretrained on related data sets. By directly transferring the shallow layers of the trained offline CNNs to the online CNN, the online CNN can significantly improve the real-time performance and successfully address the issue of achieving the desired diagnostic accuracy within limited training time. The proposed method is validated on two bearing data sets and one pump data set, respectively. The prediction accuracy of the proposed method using three data sets are 99.88%, 99.13%, and 99.98%, respectively. The experimental results also indicate that the improvement of accuracy is 19.21% for the motor bearing case, 29.82% for the rolling mill bearing case, and 33.26% for the pump case during the early stage of learning.
Convolutional neural network (CNN), online fault diagnosis, real-time performance, signal-to-image conversion, transfer learning